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Determine an Income Property's Value
How To Determine an Income Property's Value Using Capitalization Rate
1. Determine the net operating income of the subject property the client is considering purchasing. If it's an apartment complex, determine the net rental income after expenses.
Example: A six unit apartment project yielding $30,000 net profit from rentals.
2. From recent comparable sold properties, determine the capitalization rate.
3. Divide the net operating income by the capitalization rate to get the current property value result.
Example: Assume a capitalization rate of 11%.
$30,000 / .11 = $272,727 current value of the property. 

How To Calculate Capitalization Rate for Real Estate 
By using other properties' operating income and recent sold prices, the capitalization rate is determined and then applied to the property in question to determine current value based on income.
1. Get the recent sold price of an income property, such as an apartment complex.
Example: Six unit apartment project sold for $300,000
2. For that same apartment project, determine the net operating income, or the net rentals realized by the owners.
Example: The rental income after expenses (net) is $24,000
3. Divide the net operating income by the sale price to get cap rate.
Example: $24,000 / $300,000 = .08 or 8% (The Capitalization Rate)

An Example Rental Property Cash Flow Calculation
This is a simple cash flow calculation to illustrate the potential of real estate as an investment. Critical to this, as with most investments, is an intelligent and well-researched purchase on the front end. We'll assume for our example that this buyer did their research and made a good buy on our fourplex. 

Here are the purchase and rental particulars:
1. Purchase price of the fourplex is $325,000.
2. Buyer places 20% down, or $65,000, financing $260,000.
3. 30 year loan is at 6.5%, with Principle/Interest payment of $ 1643 per month.
4. Taxes and insurance at purchase are $3600/year, for total payment of $1943 per month. 

The buyer did their research and sees a steady rental demand for these units, all of which stay occupied most of the time. However, to be prudent in their calculations, a 6% vacancy and non-payment risk will be calculated to anticipate real cash flow. The units are all identical and rent for $900 per month each. 

1. Gross rental income is $900 X 4 X 12 months, or $43,200 per year.
2. Payments are $1943 X 12 = $23,316 per year.
3. Previous owner's repair expense has averaged $1700 per year.
4. Vacancy and credit loss is estimated at 6% of rents or $2592 per year.
5. Owner spends about $400 each year in miscellaneous and advertising costs, and manages the property on their own. 

Calculation to the profits:
• Rent income - Vacancy Loss - Payments - Expenses = Cash Flow
• $43,200 - $2592 - $23,316 - $2100 = $15,192 / 12 = $1266 per month in positive cash flow.
Analyzing your return as "cash on cash invested", you would divide your actual cash investment of $65,000 down into the annual return of cash, or $15,192. This is a yield of 23% on your cash invested.
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 Mortgage Glossary
203(b): FHA program which provides mortgage insurance to protect lenders from default; used to finance the purchase of new or existing one- to four family housing; characterized by low down payment, flexible qualifying guidelines, limited fees, and a limit on maximum loan amount.

203(k): this FHA mortgage insurance program enables homebuyers to finance both the purchase of a house and the cost of its rehabilitation through a single mortgage loan.

A

Amenity: a feature of the home or property that serves as a benefit to the buyer but that is not necessary to its use; may be natural (like location, Woods, water) or man-made (like a swimming pool or garden).

Amortization: repayment of a mortgage loan through monthly installments of principal and interest; the monthly payment amount is based on a schedule that will allow you to own your home at the end of a specific time period (for example, 15 or 30 years)

Annual Percentage Rate (APR): calculated by using a standard formula, the APR shows the cost of a loan; expressed as a yearly interest rate, it includes the interest, points, mortgage insurance, and other fees associated with the loan.

Application: the first step in the official loan approval process; this form is used to record important information about the potential borrower necessary to the underwriting process.

Appraisal: a document that gives an estimate of a property's fair market value; an appraisal is generally required by a lender before loan approval to ensure that the mortgage loan amount is not more than the value of the property.

Appraiser: a qualified individual who uses his or her experience and knowledge to prepare the appraisal estimate.

ARM: Adjustable Rate Mortgage; a mortgage loan subject to changes in interest rates; when rates change, ARM monthly payments increase or decrease at intervals determined by the lender; the Change in monthly -payment amount, however, is usually subject to a Cap.

Assessor: a government official who is responsible for determining the value of a property for the purpose of taxation.

Assumable mortgage: a mortgage that can be transferred from a seller to a buyer; once the loan is assumed by the buyer the seller is no longer responsible for repaying it; there may be a fee and/or a credit package involved in the transfer of an assumable mortgage.

B

Balloon Mortgage: a mortgage that typically offers low rates for an initial period of time (usually 5, 7, or 10) years; after that time period elapses, the balance is due or is refinanced by the borrower.

Bankruptcy: a federal law Whereby a person's assets are turned over to a trustee and used to pay off outstanding debts; this usually occurs when someone owes more than they have the ability to repay.

Borrower: a person who has been approved to receive a loan and is then obligated to repay it and any additional fees according to the loan terms.

Building code: based on agreed upon safety standards within a specific area, a building code is a regulation that determines the design, construction, and materials used in building.

Budget: a detailed record of all income earned and spent during a specific period of time.

C

Cap: a limit, such as that placed on an adjustable rate mortgage, on how much a monthly payment or interest rate can increase or decrease.

Cash reserves: a cash amount sometimes required to be held in reserve in addition to the down payment and closing costs; the amount is determined by the lender.

Certificate of title: a document provided by a qualified source (such as a title company) that shows the property legally belongs to the current owner; before the title is transferred at closing, it should be clear and free of all liens or other claims.

Closing: also known as settlement, this is the time at which the property is formally sold and transferred from the seller to the buyer; it is at this time that the borrower takes on the loan obligation, pays all closing costs, and receives title from the seller.

Closing costs: customary costs above and beyond the sale price of the property that must be paid to cover the transfer of ownership at closing; these costs generally vary by geographic location and are typically detailed to the borrower after submission of a loan application.

Commission: an amount, usually a percentage of the property sales price, that is collected by a real estate professional as a fee for negotiating the transaction..

Condominium: a form of ownership in which individuals purchase and own a unit of housing in a multi-unit complex; the owner also shares financial responsibility for common areas.

Conventional loan: a private sector loan, one that is not guaranteed or insured by the U.S. government.

Cooperative (Co-op): residents purchase stock in a cooperative corporation that owns a structure; each stockholder is then entitled to live in a specific unit of the structure and is responsible for paying a portion of the loan.

Credit history: history of an individual's debt payment; lenders use this information to gauge a potential borrower's ability to repay a loan.

Credit report: a record that lists all past and present debts and the timeliness of their repayment; it documents an individual's credit history.

Credit bureau score: a number representing the possibility a borrower may default; it is based upon credit history and is used to determine ability to qualify for a mortgage loan.

D

Debt-to-income ratio: a comparison of gross income to housing and non-housing expenses; With the FHA, the-monthly mortgage payment should be no more than 29% of monthly gross income (before taxes) and the mortgage payment combined with non-housing debts should not exceed 41% of income.

Deed: the document that transfers ownership of a property.

Deed-in-lieu: to avoid foreclosure ("in lieu" of foreclosure), a deed is given to the lender to fulfill the obligation to repay the debt; this process doesn't allow the borrower to remain in the house but helps avoid the costs, time, and effort associated with foreclosure.

Default: the inability to pay monthly mortgage payments in a timely manner or to otherwise meet the mortgage terms.

Delinquency: failure of a borrower to make timely mortgage payments under a loan agreement.

Discount point: normally paid at closing and generally calculated to be equivalent to 1% of the total loan amount, discount points are paid to reduce the interest rate on a loan.

Down payment: the portion of a home's purchase price that is paid in cash and is not part of the mortgage loan.

E

Earnest money: money put down by a potential buyer to show that he or she is serious about purchasing the home; it becomes part of the down payment if the offer is accepted, is returned if the offer is rejected, or is forfeited if the buyer pulls out of the deal.

EEM: Energy Efficient Mortgage; an FHA program that helps homebuyers save money on utility bills by enabling them to finance the cost of adding energy efficiency features to a new or existing home as part of the home purchase

Equity: an owner's financial interest in a property; calculated by subtracting the amount still owed on the mortgage loon(s)from the fair market value of the property.

Escrow account: a separate account into which the lender puts a portion of each monthly mortgage payment; an escrow account provides the funds needed for such expenses as property taxes, homeowners insurance, mortgage insurance, etc.

F

Fair Housing Act: a law that prohibits discrimination in all facets of the homebuying process on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or disability.

Fair market value: the hypothetical price that a willing buyer and seller will agree upon when they are acting freely, carefully, and with complete knowledge of the situation.

Fannie Mae: Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA); a federally-chartered enterprise owned by private stockholders that purchases residential mortgages and converts them into securities for sale to investors; by purchasing mortgages, Fannie Mae supplies funds that lenders may loan to potential homebuyers.

FHA: Federal Housing Administration; established in 1934 to advance homeownership opportunities for all Americans; assists homebuyers by providing mortgage insurance to lenders to cover most losses that may occur when a borrower defaults; this encourages lenders to make loans to borrowers who might not qualify for conventional mortgages.

Fixed-rate mortgage: a mortgage with payments that remain the same throughout the life of the loan because the interest rate and other terms are fixed and do not change.

Flood insurance: insurance that protects homeowners against losses from a flood; if a home is located in a flood plain, the lender will require flood insurance before approving a loan.

Foreclosure: a legal process in which mortgaged property is sold to pay the loan of the defaulting borrower.

Freddie Mac: Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLM); a federally-chartered corporation that purchases residential mortgages, securitizes them, and sells them to investors; this provides lenders With funds for new homebuyers.

G

Ginnie Mae: Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA); a government-owned corporation overseen by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Ginnie Mae pools FHA-insured and VA-guaranteed loans to back securities for private investment; as With Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the investment income provides funding that may then be lent to eligible borrowers by lenders.

Good faith estimate: an estimate of all closing fees including pre-paid and escrow items as well as lender charges; must be given to the borrower within three days after submission of a loan application.

H

HELP: Homebuyer Education Learning Program; an educational program from the FHA that counsels people about the homebuying process; HELP covers topics like budgeting, finding a home, getting a loan, and home maintenance; in most cases, completion of the program may entitle the homebuyer to a reduced initial FHA mortgage insurance premium-from 2.25% to 1.75% of the home purchase price.

Home inspection: an examination of the structure and mechanical systems to determine a home's safety; makes the potential homebuyer aware of any repairs that may be needed.

Home warranty: offers protection for mechanical systems and attached appliances against unexpected repairs not covered by homeowner's insurance; ,overage extends over a specific time period and does not cover the home's structure.

Homeowner's insurance: an insurance policy that combines protection against damage to a dwelling and Is contents with protection against claims of negligence )r inappropriate action that result in someone's injury or )property damage.

Housing counseling agency- provides counseling and assistance to individuals on a variety of issues, including loan default, fair housing, and homebuying.

HUD: the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; established in 1965, HUD works to create a decent home and suitable living environment for all Americans; it does this by addressing housing needs, improving and developing American communities, and enforcing fair housing laws.

HUD1 Statement: also known as the "settlement sheet," it itemizes all closing costs; must be given to the borrower at or before closing.

HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning; a home's heating and cooling system.

I

Index. a measurement used by lenders to determine changes to the Interest rate charged on an adjustable rate mortgage.

Inflation: the number of dollars in circulation exceeds the amount of goods and services available for purchase; inflation results in a decrease in the dollar's value.

Interest: a fee charged for the use of money .

Interest rate: the amount of interest charged on a monthly loan payment; usually expressed as a percentage.

Insurance: protection against a specific loss over a period of time that is secured by the payment of a regularly scheduled premium.

J

Judgment: a legal decision; when requiring debt repayment, a judgment may include a property lien that secures the creditor's claim by providing a collateral source.

L

Lease purchase: assists low- to moderate-income homebuyers in purchasing a home by allowing them to lease a home with an option to buy; the rent payment is made up of the monthly rental payment plus an additional amount that is credited to an account for use as a down payment.

Lien: a legal claim against property that must be satisfied When the property is sold

Loan: money borrowed that is usually repaid with interest.

Loan fraud: purposely giving incorrect information on a loan application in order to better qualify for a loan; may result in civil liability or criminal penalties.

Loan-to-value (LTV) ratio.- a percentage calculated by dividing the amount borrowed by the price or appraised value of the home to be purchased; the higher the LTV, the less cash a borrower is required to pay as down payment.

Lock-in: since interest rates can change frequently, many lenders offer an interest rate lock-in that guarantees a specific interest rate if the loan is closed within a specific time.

Loss mitigation: a process to avoid foreclosure; the lender tries to help a borrower who has been unable to make loan payments and is in danger of defaulting on his or her loan

M

Margin: an amount the lender adds to an index to determine the interest rate on an adjustable rate mortgage.

Mortgage: a lien on the property that secures the Promise to repay a loan.

Mortgage banker: a company that originates loans and resells them to secondary mortgage lenders like :Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.

Mortgage broker: a firm that originates and processes loans for a number of lenders.

Mortgage insurance: a policy that protects lenders against some or most of the losses that can occur when a borrower defaults on a mortgage loan; mortgage insurance is required primarily for borrowers with a down payment of less than 20% of the home's purchase price.

Mortgage insurance premium (MIP): a monthly payment -usually part of the mortgage payment - paid by a borrower for mortgage insurance.

Mortgage Modification: a loss mitigation option that allows a borrower to refinance and/or extend the term of the mortgage loan and thus reduce the monthly payments.

O

Offer: indication by a potential buyer of a willingness to purchase a home at a specific price; generally put forth in writing.

Origination: the process of preparing, submitting, and evaluating a loan application; generally includes a credit check, verification of employment, and a property appraisal.

Origination fee: the charge for originating a loan; is usually calculated in the form of points and paid at closing.

P

Partial Claim: a loss mitigation option offered by the FHA that allows a borrower, with help from a lender, to get an interest-free loan from HUD to bring their mortgage payments up to date.

PITI: Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance - the four elements of a monthly mortgage payment; payments of principal and interest go directly towards repaying the loan while the portion that covers taxes and insurance (homeowner's and mortgage, if applicable) goes into an escrow account to cover the fees when they are due.

PMI: Private Mortgage Insurance; privately-owned companies that offer standard and special affordable mortgage insurance programs for qualified borrowers with down payments of less than 20% of a purchase price.

Pre-approve: lender commits to lend to a potential borrower; commitment remains as long as the borrower still meets the qualification requirements at the time of purchase.

Pre-foreclosure sale: allows a defaulting borrower to sell the mortgaged property to satisfy the loan and avoid foreclosure.

Pre-qualify: a lender informally determines the maximum amount an individual is eligible to borrow.

Premium: an amount paid on a regular schedule by a policyholder that maintains insurance coverage.

Prepayment: payment of the mortgage loan before the scheduled due date; may be Subject to a prepayment penalty.

Principal: the amount borrowed from a lender; doesn't include interest or additional fees.

R

Radon: a radioactive gas found in some homes that, if occurring in strong enough concentrations, can cause health problems.

Real estate agent: an individual who is licensed to negotiate and arrange real estate sales; works for a real estate broker.

REALTOR: a real estate agent or broker who is a member of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS, and its local and state associations.

Refinancing: paying off one loan by obtaining another; refinancing is generally done to secure better loan terms (like a lower interest rate).

Rehabilitation mortgage: a mortgage that covers the costs of rehabilitating (repairing or Improving) a property; some rehabilitation mortgages - like the FHA's 203(k) - allow a borrower to roll the costs of rehabilitation and home purchase into one mortgage loan.

RESPA: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act; a law protecting consumers from abuses during the residential real estate purchase and loan process by requiring lenders to disclose all settlement costs, practices, and relationships

S

Settlement: another name for closing .

Special Forbearance: a loss mitigation option where the lender arranges a revised repayment plan for the borrower that may include a temporary reduction or suspension of monthly loan payments.

Subordinate: to place in a rank of lesser importance or to make one claim secondary to another.

Survey: a property diagram that indicates legal boundaries, easements, encroachments, rights of way, improvement locations, etc.

Sweat equity: using labor to build or improve a property as part of the down payment

T

Title 1: an FHA-insured loan that allows a borrower to make non-luxury improvements (like renovations or repairs) to their home; Title I loans less than $7,500 don't require a property lien.

Title insurance: insurance that protects the lender against any claims that arise from arguments about ownership of the property; also available for homebuyers.

Title search: a check of public records to be sure that the seller is the recognized owner of the real estate and that there are no unsettled liens or other claims against the property.

Truth-in-Lending: a federal law obligating a lender to give full written disclosure of all fees, terms, and conditions associated with the loan initial period and then adjusts to another rate that lasts for the term of the loan.

Underwriting: the process of analyzing a loan application to determine the amount of risk involved in making the loan; it includes a review of the potential borrower's credit history and a judgment of the property value.

VA: Department of Veterans Affairs: a federal agency which guarantees loans made to veterans; similar to mortgage insurance, a loan guarantee protects lenders against loss that may result from a borrower default.

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Specialty Mortgages - two new ways to keep your payments low:
  1. Interest-Only Mortgages (I-O)
  2. Adjustable-Rate Mortgages (ARM) with the option to make a minimum payment

Owning a home is part of the American dream. But high home prices may make the dream seem out of reach. To make monthly mortgage payments more affordable, many lenders offer home loans that allow you to:
(1) pay only the interest on the loan during the first few years of the loan term or
(2) make only a specified minimum payment that could be less than the monthly interest on the loan.

Whether you are buying a house or refinancing your mortgage, this information can help you decide if an interest-only mortgage payment (an I-O mortgage)—or an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) with the option to make a minimum payment (a payment-option ARM)—is right for you. Lenders have a variety of names for these loans, but keep in mind that with I-O mortgages and payment-option ARMs, you could face

  • payment shock. Your payments may go up a lot— as much as double or triple—after the interest-only period or when the payments adjust.

In addition, with payment-option ARMs you could face

  • negative amortization. Your payments may not cover all of the interest owed. The unpaid interest is added to your mortgage balance so that you owe more on your mortgage than you originally borrowed.

Be sure you understand the loan terms and the risks you face. And be realistic about whether you can handle future payment increases. If you’re not comfortable with these risks, ask about another loan product



What is an I-O mortgage payment?

Traditional mortgages require that each month you pay back some of the money you borrowed (the principal) plus the interest on that money. The principal you owe on your mortgage decreases over the term of the loan. In contrast, an I-O payment plan allows you to pay only the interest for a specified number of years. After that, you must repay both the principal and the interest.

Most mortgages that offer an I-O payment plan have adjustable interest rates, which means that the interest rate and monthly payment will change over the term of the loan. The changes may be as often as once a month or as seldom as every 3 to 5 years, depending on the terms of your loan. For example, a 5/1 ARM has a fixed interest rate for the first 5 years; after that, the rate can change once a year (the “1” in 5/1) during the rest of the loan.

More information on ARMs is available in the: Consumer Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages
.

The I-O payment period is typically between 3 and 10 years. After that, your monthly payment will increase—even if interest rates stay the same—because you must pay back the principal as well as the interest. For example, if you take out a 30-year mortgage loan with a 5-year I-O payment period, you can pay only interest for 5 years and then both principal and interest over the next 25 years. Because you begin to pay back the principal, your payments increase after year 5.


What is a payment-option ARM?

A payment-option ARM is an adjustable-rate mortgage that allows you to choose among several payment options each month. The options typically include

  • a traditional payment of principal and interest (which reduces the amount you owe on your mortgage). These payments may be based on a set loan term, such as a 15-, 30-, or 40- year payment schedule.
  • an interest-only payment (which does not change the amount you owe on your mortgage).
  • a minimum (or limited) payment (which may be less than the amount of interest due that month and may not pay down any principal). If you choose this option, the amount of any interest you do not pay will be added to the principal of the loan, increasing the amount you owe and increasing the interest you will pay.

Interest rates. The interest rate on a payment-option ARM is typically very low for the first 1 to 3 months (2%, for example). After that, the rate usually rises to a rate closer to that of other mortgage loans. Your monthly payments during the fa first year are based on the initial low rate, meaning that if you only make the minimum payment, it may not cover the interest due. The unpaid interest is added to the amount you owe on the mortgage, resulting in a higher balance. This is known as negative amortization. Also, as interest rates go up, your payments are likely to go up.

Payment changes. Many payment-option ARMs limit, or cap, the amount the monthly minimum payment may increase from year to year. For example, if your loan has a payment cap of 7.5%, your monthly payment won’t increase more than 7.5% from one year to the next (for example, from $1,000 to $1,075), even if interest rates rise more than 7.5%. Any interest you don’t pay because of the payment cap will be added to the balance of your loan.

Payment-option ARMs have a built-in recalculation period, usually every 5 years. At this point, your payment will be recalculated (lenders use the term recast) based on the remaining term of the loan. If you have a 30-year loan and you are at the end of year 5, your payment will be recalculated for the remaining 25 years. The payment cap does not apply to this adjustment. If your loan balance has increased, or if interest rates have risen faster than your payments, your payments could go up a lot.

Ending the option payments. Lenders end the option payments if the amount of principal you owe grows beyond a set limit, say 110% or 125% of your original mortgage amount. For example, suppose you made minimum payments on your $180,000 mortgage and had negative amortization. If the balance grew to $225,000 (125% of $180,000), the option payments would end. Your loan would be recalculated and you would pay back principal and interest based on the remaining term of your loan. It is likely that your payments would go up significantly.

Taxes on Second Homes
The change in the tax law gets a lot of credit for a recent boom in the number of Americans buying second homes. 

The change allows most home sellers to take up to $500,000 of profit tax free. Before 1997, sellers generally had to buy a more expensive home to avoid being taxed on profit from a sale. Now you can trade down to a less expensive house and use profit from the sale of the big place as a down payment on a second home. 

More than one in five second-home buyers were using equity from the sale of a primary residence to finance their purchase. If you use the place as a second home  interest on the mortgage is deductible just as interest on the mortgage on your first home is. 

Property Taxes
You can deduct property taxes on your second home, too. In fact, unlike the mortgage interest rule, you can deduct property taxes paid on any number of homes you own. 

If You rent the home, different tax rules apply depending on the breakdown between personal and rental use. 

If you rent the place out for 14 or fewer days during the year, you can pocket the cash tax-free.  The house is considered a personal residence, so you deduct mortgage interest and property taxes just as you do for your principal home. 

Rent for more than 14 days, though, and you must report all rental income. You also get to deduct rental expenses, and that gets complicated because you need to allocate costs between the time the property is used for personal purposes and the time it is rented. 

Tax-Free Profit
Although the rule that allows home owners to take up to $500,000 of profit tax free applies only to your principal residence, there is a way to extend the break to your second home: Make it you principal residence before you sell. 
Some retirees are selling the big family home and moving full time into what had been their vacation home. Once you live in that home for two years, up to $500,000 of profit can be tax free.

 
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